Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.
Using language with a suitable amount of caution can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It also helps to point the known degree of certainty we now have with regards to the evidence or support.
Compare the next two texts that are short (A) and (B). You will notice that even though two texts are, in essence, saying the thing that is same (B) has a substantial number of extra language around the claim. A amount that is large of language is performing the purpose of ‘hedging’.
Compare the following two texts that are short (A) and (B). What number of differences would you see when you look at the second text? What’s the function/effect/purpose of each and every difference?
You shall probably realize that (B) is much more ‘academic’, however it is important to comprehend why.
(A) Extensive reading helps students to improve their vocabulary.
(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) seems to indicate that, for a substantial proportion of students, extensive reading may play a role in a marked improvement within their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study involved learners aged 15-16 into the UK, even though it might be applicable to other groups. However, the study involved an sample that is opt-in meaning that the sample students might have been more ‘keen’, or more involved in reading already. It could be helpful to see whether the findings differ in a wider sample.
(take note that Yen (2005) is a reference that is fictional only as one example).
The table below provides some situations of language to utilize when making knowledge claims.
Try to look for types of hedging language in your own reading, to add for this table.
Phrases for Hedging
Language Function with Example Phrases
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to some degree
has the appearance of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to stay line with
has the possibility of
has the potential to
is in a position to
has a tendency to
in a less complicated way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …
When you look at the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…
7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …
8) Description in language
can be described as
could be thought to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is normally used to mean
the term is usually used to refer to
this may indicate that …
this may suggest that …
Language categories compiled and devised by Jane Blackwell
IOE Centre that is writing Online
Self-access resources through the Academic Writing Centre at the UCL Institute of Education.
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Academic Centre that is writing Institute of Education
Essays often sound tough, but they are the way that is easiest to write a lengthy answer.
In this lesson, we will look at just how to write one.
Start your answer, and list what you will about be writing
Write about the basic ideas which will answr fully your question
Re-write what your ideas are and say why you have answered them
Arguments, Keywords and Definitions
Before we start dealing with how an essay works, we need to go through three terms that we will used to describe that which you do for essay writing structure.
Argument = all the main points you are likely to write about in your essay.
Keywords = words that are important components of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of the whole essay which you write in your introduction.
We shall go through a few examples in a minute.
To publish your introduction, follow these steps. Every one of these steps means you start a new sentence.
- Rewrite the question using keywords, range from the name of text(s) and author(s)
- Write a single sentence answer (definition)
- List most of the main points of one’s argument
Exemplory case of an Introduction
Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs aren’t able to fly. (Re-write of question)
they can not fly because their bodies don’t allow them to. (Definition)
These are typically too heavy to float, they don’t have wings or propellers, and so they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)
The body forms most of your essay.
It is the most important section of each essay you write.
Within your body, you have to argue all your points that are main explain why they answer your question.
Each main point must be in a paragraph that is new.
Each main point must certanly be in a different paragraph. Each paragraph should always be put down like this:
- Topic Sentence: a sentence that is short you repeat one main point from your own introduction.
- Discussion: Explain why your main point is right and provide reasons why.
- Evidence: Proof you will get from a text, a customwriting org quote, or a ‘fact’. It will prove that the answer is right.
- Lead out: complete the point that is main you can go right to the next.
Illustration of a physical body Paragraph
Pigs are way too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight imply that they’re not able to float, which will be one of the ways a creature can fly. To float a pig would need to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and this is why weight, it is really not lighter than air. (Evidence)
This is exactly why, a pig is unable to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)
Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure
A conclusion is a short summary of everything you have written in the body paragraph.
It will ‘tie’ everything together.
As pigs aren’t able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they unable to go into the atmosphere, and therefore cannot fly.